To help children understand the concrete concept that an abstract orthographic symbol represents, let's apply the same strategies we use for teaching background knowledge in reading.
Chris R. Cain and Valerie N. Faulkner
Valerie N. Faulkner, Lee V. Stiff, Patricia L. Marshall, John Nietfeld, and Cathy L. Crossland
This study is a longitudinal look at the different mathematics placement profiles of Black students and White students from late elementary school through 8th grade. Results revealed that Black students had reduced odds of being placed in algebra by the time they entered 8th grade even after controlling for performance in mathematics. An important implication of this study is that placement recommendations must be monitored to ensure that high-achieving students are placed appropriately, regardless of racial background.