Is gender still a salient equity issue for today's mathematics classrooms? Although considerable progress in women's participation in mathematics has been achieved in the last twentyfive years, inequities still exist. For example, women represent less than fifteen percent of the employed scientists and engineers in computer science, mathematics, agricultural science, environmental science, chemistry, geology, physics and astronomy, economics, and engineering (NSF 1996). Females score an average of thirty points lower than males on the mathematics section of the SAT. Despite more than two decades of intervention, parity remains a vision for the future. This article discusses our role as teachers in giving girls an equitable foundation in mathematics in the elementary grades.

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### Joanne Rossi Becker

A recent article by Bulmahn and Young (1982) in this journal discussed an important topic, the mathematics anxiety of future elementary school teachers. For a long time many mathematics educators have decried the poor attitudes toward the subject of those who will teach young children. Unfortunately, relatively little data have been published documenting these poor attitudes and anxieties (see NCTM 1982). Perhaps Bulmahn and Young have such data, but they did not present them in their paper. Instead, they discussed the results in rather broad generalities that make it difficult to compare results with those of other samples or to determine if the elementary education majors in their sample were substantially more anxious about mathematics than the non–education majors in their sample. The authors made the problem of mathematics anxiety seem more severe than I judged it to be from my experience teaching mathematics to students majoring in elementary education. I decided to gather data to substantiate or refute that judgment. This article presents data on the mathematics attitudes of elementary education majors and compares them to data obtained from other populations.

### Joanne Rossi Becker

*Mathematics Education at Highly Effective Schools That Serve the Poor: Strategies for Change*. (2007). Richard S. Kitchen, Julie DePree, Sylvia Celedón-Pattichis, and Jonathan Brinkerhoff. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. xvi + 231 pp. ISBN 0-8058-5689-7 $27.50 (paperback), ISBN 0-8058-5688-9 $69.95 (hardcover).

### Joanne Rossi Becker

Although the title of this book implies a target audience of math-anxious people, it is equally, if not more, suitable for teachers of mathematics and mathematics educators. *Do You Panic about Maths? Coping with Maths Anxiety* attempts to build a model of the interaction between reason and emotion to explain the behavior of adults anxious about mathematics. The model was derived from a qualitative study of adults that had three components: hour-long interviews with two dozen people; 36 2-hour sessions with a group of four women and three men; and individual in-depth interviews, consisting of 12 or 24 sessions, with three women. Buxton relates his model to the work of Skemp, with whom he has collaborated. Indeed, he has extended Skemp's (1979) model of intelligence in this book. In addition to the theoretical framework he discusses, Buxton provides some ideas for coping with one's mathematics anxiety and gives suggestions for mathematics teachers about how to teach to avoid or combat students' anxiety.

### Joanne Rossi Becker

Although not a definitive volume on the current state of our knowledge concerning gender and mathematics. this book nevertheless collects in one place a discussion of some of the critical variables that relate to inequity in mathematics education for females. The book is edited by two of the leading researchers in this area of endeavor, each well known within and outside of her native country. This collaboration between Fennema and Leder provides some parallel research from their respective countries, the United States and Australia, thus allowing some cross-cultural comparisons. Most of the volume. however. reports about research conducted in the U.S. by former students of Fennema.

### Joanne Rossi Becker

This observational study of 10 high school geometry teachers combined the collection of quantitative and qualitative data using participant observation techniques to determine if there was differential treatment of male and female students. Categorical data gathered by use of the Brophy-Good Teacher-Child Dyadic Interaction System were analyzed by inferential and descriptive statistics. Ethnographic data were analyzed using anthropological field research techniques. Combined data showed a distinct trend for disproportionate teacher contacts, in both quantity and quality, with male students. It is hypothesized, based on observed behavior and interviews, that the sites displayed a type of self-fulfilling prophecy, with differential expectations by teachers for behavior of students of each sex causing differential treatment of students, which, in turn, contributed to differences in student behavior.

### F. D. Rivera and Joanne Rossi Becker

Findings, insights, and issues drawn from a three-year study on patterns are intended to help teach prealgebra and algebra.

### Brent Duckor, Carrie Holmberg, and Rossi Becker Joanne

A seventh-grade teacher finds that the notion of attention—to student and teacher thinking about student thinking—is key to orchestrating standards-based mathematical learning.

## Review: Mathematics, Culture, and Power

### Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in Mathematics Education

### Richard S. Kitchen and Joanne Rossi Becker

Arthur B. Powell and Marilyn Frankenstein's new book, *Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in Mathematics Education*, illuminates for our consideration a body of very practical mathematical knowledge largely discounted in the traditional mathematical community when compared with the abstract, theoretical mathematical knowledge typically valued highly by mathematicians. Ethnomathematics has caused us to call into question which mathematical knowledge really counts and thus has come to signify more than just “the study of mathematical ideas of nonliterate peoples” (a definition first offered by Marcia and Robert Ascher in the early 1980s in their paper, “Ethnomathematics,” reprinted as chapter 2 of this volume, p. 26). Editors Powell and Frankenstein use, instead, the broader definition of ethnomathematics provided in the book's opening chapter, “Ethnomathematics and Its Place in the History and Pedagogy of Mathematics,” by Ubiratan D'Ambrosio, a Brazilian mathematics educator whom many consider the intellectual progenitor of ethnomathematics. D'Ambrosio defines ethnomathematics as the mathematics that all cultural groups engage in, including “national tribal societies, labor groups, children of a certain age bracket, professional classes, and so on” (p. 16). Each group, including mathematicians, has its own mathematics. From D'Ambrosio's perspective, ethnomathematics exists at the confluence of the history of mathematics and cultural anthropology, overcoming the Egyptian/Greek differentiation between practical and academic mathematics.