Secondary school mathematics teachers are often exhorted to incorporate reasoning into all mathematics courses. However, many feel that a focus on reasoning is easier to develop in geometry than in other courses. This article explores ways in which reasoning might naturally arise when solving equations in algebra courses.
Reasoning in Algebra Classrooms
Daniel Chazan and Dara Sandow
Four important themes presented in the K–12 Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (Standards) (NCTM 1989) are mathematics as problem solving, mathematics as communication, mathematics as reasoning, and mathematical connections. The high school component also stresses mathematical structure. Furthermore, the Standards calls for new roles for teachers and students and suggests that microcomputer technology can help support teachers and students in taking on these new roles.
Orly Buchbinder, Daniel I. Chazan, and Michelle Capozzoli
Many research studies have sought to explain why NCTM's vision for mathematics classrooms has not had greater impact on everyday instruction, with teacher beliefs often identified as an explanatory variable. Using instructional exchanges as a theoretical construct, this study explores the influence of teachers' institutional positions on the solving of equations in algebra classrooms. The experimental design uses surveys with embedded rich-media representations of classroom interaction to surface how teachers appraise correct solutions to linear equations where some solutions follow suggested textbook procedures for solving linear equations and others do not. This paper illustrates the feasibility of studying teaching with rich-media surveys and suggests new ways to support changes in everyday mathematics teaching.
Joel Amidon, Daniel Chazan, Dana Grosser-Clarkson, and Elizabeth Fleming
This article explores the ways in which a teacher educator uses digital technology to create a virtual field placement as a way to blur the boundaries between a university methods course and teacher candidates' field placements. After describing his goals for the course, the teacher educator provides a description of three LessonSketch experiences his teacher candidates complete in this virtual field placement site and how these experiences create opportunities for teacher candidates to learn to teach mathematics. The design process and choices of these virtual field placement experiences are explored via interviews with the first author. Reflecting on these LessonSketch experiences, all of the authors then explore affordances of virtual and hybrid placements as resources for supplementing real placements and bridging theory/practice divides in teacher education.