Mathematics teacher educators play a key role in supporting secondary mathematics teachers’ development of effective, research-based formative assessment (FA) practices. We used qualitative research synthesis as a tool to identify actionable recommendations for mathematics teacher educators as they work with teachers on FA practices in secondary classrooms. These recommendations can strengthen the research-based practices of mathematics teacher educators as they support teachers’ collections and uses of FA data to move student thinking forward in secondary mathematics. We share and discuss recommendations for mathematics teacher educators to connect pedagogical content knowledge of students, teaching, and curriculum to FA practices. We also highlight the usefulness of the qualitative synthesis method, meta-aggregation, for generating research-based connections between theory and practice in mathematics education.

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### Rachael H. Kenney, Michael Lolkus, and Yukiko Maeda

### Kathryn Early, K. Elizabeth Hammonds, Brea Ratliff, Mariya Rosenhammer, and W. Gary Martin

A high-leverage strategy first discussed more than 50 years ago, wait time has many benefits for both teachers and students yet is not used to its full potential. See how it can enhance your students’ mathematical discourse.

### Ethan P. Smith, Jennifer Kelly, Susan Sappington, Kareemah Warren, and Amanda Jansen

Language is a conduit for communicating and understanding mathematical ideas. This article explores how we can use judicious telling to attend to students’ written and spoken literacy in mathematics.

### Victor Mateas

How trigonometry is used and portrayed differently in mathematics and physics textbooks highlights potential sources for student struggle, constraints on our trigonometry curriculum, and lessons learned when looking across STEM disciplines.

### Sara Gartland, Shellee Wong, and Laurie Silverstein

Co-teachers in a ninth-grade algebra 1 class offered instruction that integrates mathematical learning with social and emotional learning during hybrid (online and face-to-face) class meetings, promoting healing and positive identity development among students.

### Sarah Quebec Fuentes

Learn about strategies and tools to examine and improve your practice with respect to fostering equitable small-group, student-to-student discourse.

### Lauren R. Holden, Yi-Yin (Winnie) Ko, Devon W. Maxwell, Connor A. Goodwin, Cheng-Hsien Lee, Jennifer E. Runge, and Elizabeth B. Beeman

One-Straight-Cut-Heart activities can help teachers support students’ engagement with geometry and can deepen students’ geometric reasoning.

### Rebekah Elliott, Elyssa Stoddard, Megan Brunner, and Jenny White

The authors share a teacher-designed mathematical modeling routine geared to support teachers and to leverage opportunities for their students in learning important modeling practices and mathematical content.

### Rob Wieman, Lindsay Freedman, Paul Albright, Deb Nolen, and Jessica Onda

Four teachers and a teacher educator move from guided notes to strings in a series of problems that support students in increased engagement, reasoning, sense making, and problem solving.

### Lybrya Kebreab, Sarah B. Bush, and Christa Jackson

Mathematics education can be positioned as fertile ground for societal change. This article deconstructs the complex work of supporting students’ positive mathematical identities by introducing pedagogical fluency to embody equitable beliefs and practices.