Exploration, innovation, proof: For students, teachers, and others who are curious, keeping your mind open and ready to investigate unusual or unexpected properties will always lead to learning something new. Technology can further this process, allowing various behaviors to be analyzed that were previously memorized or poorly understood. This article shares the adventure of one such discovery of exploration, innovation, and proof that was uncovered when a teacher tried to find a smoother way to model conic sections using dynamic technology. When an unexpected pattern regarding the locus of an ellipse's or hyperbola's foci emerged, he pitched the problem to a ninth grader as a challenge, resulting in a marvelous adventure for both teacher and student. Beginning with the evolution of the ideas that led to the discovery of the focal locus and ending with the significant student-written proof and conclusion, we hope to inspire further classroom use of technology to enhance student learning and discovery.
Chris Harrow and Lillian Chin
Dick J. Smith and Eric F. Errthum
Many mathematics instructors attempt to insert guided exploration into their courses. However, exploration tasks frequently come across to students as contrived, pertinent only to the most recently covered section of the textbook. In addition, students usually assume that the teacher already knows the answers to these explorations.
Maurice J. Burke
A tool that combines the power of computer algebra and traditional spreadsheets can greatly enhance the study of recursive processes.
John M. Livermore
The author uses The Geometer's Sketchpad first to construct the square root of an arbitrary real number and then to construct the square root of a complex number.
Christopher J. Bucher and Michael Todd Edwards
In the introductory geometry courses that we teach, students spend significant time proving geometric results. Students who conclude that angles are congruent because “they look that way” are reminded that visual information fails to provide conclusive mathematical evidence. Likewise, numerous examples suggesting a particular result should be viewed with skepticism. After all, unfore–seen counterexamples render seemingly valid conclusions false. Inductive reasoning, although useful for generating conjectures, does not replace proof as a means of verification.
Nicholas H. Wasserman and Itar N. Arkan
The circle, so simple and yet complex, has fascinated mathematicians since the earliest civilizations. Archimedes, a well–known Greek mathematician born in 287 BCE, began to unravel part of the mystery involving π by applying iteration to the circle. Building on Euclid's postulates and theorems, Archimedes used iterations of inscribed and circumscribed regular polygons to find upper and lower bounds for the value of π. These bounds are close approximations of the value of π, and one is still used today: 22/7 differs from π only in the third place to the right of the decimal (see fig. 1).
Holly S. Zullo
Card tricks based on mathematical principles can be a great way to get students interested in exploring some important mathematical ideas. Bonomo (2008) describes several variations of a card trick that rely on nested floor functions, but these generally go beyond the reach of beginning algebra students. However, a simple spreadsheet implementation shows students why the card trick works and allows them to explore several variations. As an added bonus, students are introduced to composite functions, the floor function, and iteration, and they learn how to use formulas and the INT function in Microsoft Excel. The depth of the mathematical explanation can be varied according to students' background.