Empirical evidence exists that enhancing students’ language can promote the mathematics learning of multilingual students at risk, whereas other target groups (e.g., monolingual students, successful students, both with diverse academic language proficiency) have hardly been considered. This cluster-randomized controlled trial (*N* = 589) investigates differential effects for these extended target groups, comparing two language-responsive interventions (with or without vocabulary work) and a control group. The regression analysis reveals that all students significantly deepened their conceptual understanding in both interventions. Unlike what was anticipated, multilingual students’ growth of conceptual understanding had no significant additional benefit from integrated vocabulary work. These findings call for promoting language-responsive mathematics instruction for all students and for using a discursive rather than a vocabulary focus.

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### Susanne Prediger, Kirstin Erath, Henrike Weinert, and Kim Quabeck

### Amy Lucenta and Grace Kelemanik

Teaching students to apply structural thinking instead of automatically following procedures and algorithms can result in efficient, elegant strategies and fewer errors.

### Allison W. McCulloch, Jennifer N. Lovett, Lara K. Dick, and Charity Cayton

The authors discuss digital equity from the perspective of using math action technologies to position all students as mathematics explorers.

### Kathryn Lavin Brave, Mary McMullen, and Cecile Martin

The application of exact terminology benefits students when forming and supporting mathematical arguments virtually.

### Tracy Manousaridis

A third-grade subtraction exploration in a learning community adds curiosity, productive struggle, discourse, engagement, and fun.

### Kelly Hagan and Cheng-Yao Lin

Growing Problem Solvers provides four original, related, classroom-ready mathematical tasks, one for each grade band. Together, these tasks illustrate the trajectory of learners’ growth as problem solvers across their years of school mathematics.

### Stefanie D. Livers, Kristin E. Harbour, and Lindsey Fowler

In our attempts to make a concept easier, we may hinder student learning.

### Laurie Speranzo and Erik Tillema

Specific teacher moves and lesson planning can facilitate student empowerment in the middle school classroom.