Issues of equity in mathematics classrooms existed prior to COVID-19. For many students, however, meaningful participation in mathematical discussions became nearly impossible in online settings during the pandemic. In this study, we note the diversity in and nature of participation in mathematical discourse in an online course for preservice teachers (PSTs). We investigate the influence of implementing two support strategies for discussion: (a) establishing a “rough-draft/revision” orientation to mathematical tasks; and (b) providing time and structure (tasks and prompts) in an online discussion board for PSTs to post their initial thoughts, react to peers’ solutions, and collectively revise their ideas. In this article, we highlight several benefits of these support strategies to equitable PST participation in a unit on number theory. For example, as compared with oral discussions where only a few PSTs offered their ideas, the written discussion format encouraged every PST to post their ideas. Using a rough-draft/revision stance in the prompts fostered sharing and revealed diverse mathematical approaches, perspectives, and ideas. We argue that giving students opportunities to interact with one another and the mathematics in a variety of ways promotes equitable participation.
Margaret Rathouz, Nesrin Cengiz-Phillips, and Angela S. Krebs
Kathryn Early, K. Elizabeth Hammonds, Brea Ratliff, Mariya Rosenhammer, and W. Gary Martin
A high-leverage strategy first discussed more than 50 years ago, wait time has many benefits for both teachers and students yet is not used to its full potential. See how it can enhance your students’ mathematical discourse.
Chepina Rumsey, Jody Guarino, and Michelle Sperling
We describe how mathematical argumentation supports curiosity and exploration by sharing a first-grade lesson in which students explored decomposition with subtraction. We also reflect on the conditions that supported the inclusion of mathematical argumentation.
Stephanie D. Sigmon, Kelly Q. Halpin, Damien J. Ettere, and Jennifer Suh
This article models how to plan and facilitate implementing the same task in two sixth-grade classrooms with two different learning goals using the Five Practices structure.
This department provides a space for current and past PK–12 teachers of mathematics to connect with other teachers of mathematics through their stories that lend personal and professional support.
Ashley Schmidt, Treshonda Rutledge, Tandrea Fulton, and Sarah B. Bush
Do you use mathematical discussions to increase engagement in your classroom? In this Front and Center article, authors provide a discourse tool that can be used to reveal potential biases found in the implementation of the Five Practices.
Victoria R. Jacobs, Susan B. Empson, Joan M. Case, Amy Dunning, Naomi A. Jessup, Gladys Krause, and D’Anna Pynes
The authors introduce an activity involving “follow-up equations” to connect with ideas children have already expressed during fraction problem solving.
This department provides a space for current and past PK-12 teachers of mathematics to connect with other teachers of mathematics through their stories that lend personal and professional support.
George J. Roy, Kristin E. Harbour, Christie Martin, and Matthew Cunningham
Using this strategy, a teacher facilitates a short conversation during which students verbally explain and justify reasoning. We have found that a coordinated series of number talks supports students’ reasoning when comparing fractions.
Sara Gartland, Shellee Wong, and Laurie Silverstein
Co-teachers in a ninth-grade algebra 1 class offered instruction that integrates mathematical learning with social and emotional learning during hybrid (online and face-to-face) class meetings, promoting healing and positive identity development among students.