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Nancy Anderson

The questions that teachers ask to elicit student reasoning—often referred to as press for reasoning—help students explicate the concepts and principles that undergird their strategies. This article describes the term, addresses its benefits and challenges, and offers three routines.

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Imani Masters Goffney

Postscript items are designed as rich grab-and-go resources that any teacher can quickly incorporate into his or her classroom repertoire with little effort and maximum impact. Increase mathematical confidence by creating ways for students to show they are “smart” in math through Smartness Wordles™, collections of words in graphic representation.

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Amy F. Hillen and Tad Watanabe

Conjecturing is central to the work of reasoning and proving. This task gives fourth and fifth graders a chance to make conjectures and prove (or disprove) them.

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Allison B. Hintz

Teachers can foster strategy sharing by attending to the cognitive demands that students experience while talking, listening, and making mistakes.

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Nesrin Cengiz

Capitalize on student thinking to create opportunities to further their mathematical reasoning.

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Renee Parker and M. Lynn Breyfogle

This student-friendly rubric helped improve third graders' competencies when explaining solution strategies in writing.