Grade 4 students engage in problem solving through inquiry in an agricultural science context.

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### Kathryn Lavin Brave and Jillian Miller

Two teachers describe how to use Fermi Questions to illuminate the connections between the Standards for Mathematical Practice and the social and emotional learning competencies.

### S. Asli Özgün-Koca and Monica G. McLeod

Growing Problem Solvers provides four original, related, classroom-ready mathematical tasks, one for each grade band. Together, these tasks illustrate the trajectory of learners’ growth as problem solvers across their years of school mathematics.

### Susanne Prediger, Kirstin Erath, Henrike Weinert, and Kim Quabeck

Empirical evidence exists that enhancing students’ language can promote the mathematics learning of multilingual students at risk, whereas other target groups (e.g., monolingual students, successful students, both with diverse academic language proficiency) have hardly been considered. This cluster-randomized controlled trial (*N* = 589) investigates differential effects for these extended target groups, comparing two language-responsive interventions (with or without vocabulary work) and a control group. The regression analysis reveals that all students significantly deepened their conceptual understanding in both interventions. Unlike what was anticipated, multilingual students’ growth of conceptual understanding had no significant additional benefit from integrated vocabulary work. These findings call for promoting language-responsive mathematics instruction for all students and for using a discursive rather than a vocabulary focus.

### Mindy Kalchman

Process-oriented, question-asking techniques provide a framework for approaching modern challenges, including modality pivots and student agency.

### Courtney K. Baker, Terrie M. Galanti, Kimberly Morrow-Leong, and Tammy Kraft

The Teaching for Robust Understanding framework facilitates online collaborative problem solving with digital interactive notebooks that position all students as doers of mathematics.

### Amanda K. Riske, Catherine E. Cullicott, Amanda Mohammad Mirzaei, Amanda Jansen, and James Middleton

We introduce the Into Math Graph tool, which students use to graph how “into" mathematics they are over time. Using this tool can help teachers foster conversations with students and design experiences that focus on engagement from the student’s perspective.

### Elizabeth Suazo-Flores and Lisa Roetker

We describe how a group of eighth-grade students reasoned abstractly and quantitatively after the teacher fostered their engagement by using moves such as inviting students to draw and revoicing talk in a real-world context task.