Elementary mathematics teacher education often draws on research-based frameworks that center children as mathematical thinkers, grounding teaching in children’s mathematical strategies and ideas and as a means to attend to equity in mathematics teaching and learning. In this conceptual article, a group of critical mathematics teacher educators of color reflect on the boundaries of Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) as a research-based mathematical instructional framework advancing equity through a sociopolitical perspective of mathematics instruction connected to race, power, and identity. We specifically discuss CGI along the dominant and critical approaches to equity outlined by , ) framework. We present strategies used to extend our work with CGI and call for the field to continue critical conversations of examining mathematical instructional frameworks as we center equity and criticality.

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### Luz A. Maldonado Rodríguez, Naomi Jessup, Marrielle Myers, Nicole Louie, and Theodore Chao

### Mindy Kalchman

Process-oriented, question-asking techniques provide a framework for approaching modern challenges, including modality pivots and student agency.

### Madelyn W. Colonnese

A teacher implements this type of personal prose in the classroom to help students make sense of fractions and communicate ideas.

### Stacy R. Jones and Carlos Nicolas Gomez Marchant

Through a composite counter-story from the perspective of fifth-grade Raza learners, the authors show how race and language play a role in the mathematics classroom.

### Crystal Kalinec-Craig, Emily P. Bonner, and Traci Kelley

This article describes an innovation in an elementary mathematics education course called SEE Math (Support and Enrichment Experiences in Mathematics), which aims to support teacher candidates (TCs) as they learn to teach mathematics through problem solving while promoting equity during multiple experiences with a child. During this 8-week program, TCs craft and implement tasks that promote problem solving in the context of a case study of a child’s thinking while collecting and analyzing student data to support future instructional decisions. The program culminates in a mock parent–teacher conference. Data samples show how SEE Math offers TCs an opportunity to focus on the nuances of children’s strengths rather than traditional measures of achievement and skill.

### Jamie Vescio

This article examines action research findings within a fourth-grade mathematics classroom. The researcher explores the effects of positive communication to family members on the engagement of learners receiving Tier 2 behavioral support, as well as potential considerations for building young learners’ mathematical identities.

### Cory A. Bennett and Mick J. Morgan

Chalk Talks, a silent discussion protocol, can be used to begin developing cocreated norms. The insights gained shaped the support provided by both the teacher and students throughout the year.

### Katherine Baker, Naomi A. Jessup, Victoria R. Jacobs, Susan B. Empson, and Joan Case

Productive struggle is an essential part of mathematics instruction that promotes learning with deep understanding. A video scenario is used to provide a glimpse of productive struggle in action and to showcase its characteristics for both students and teachers. Suggestions for supporting productive struggle are provided.

### LouAnn H. Lovin

Moving beyond memorization of probability rules, the area model can be useful in making some significant ideas in probability more apparent to students. In particular, area models can help students understand when and why they multiply probabilities and when and why they add probabilities.