Design projects to encourage your students’ self-efficacy and motivate mathematics learning by helping them apply their prior knowledge from real-world experiences.

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### Amanda K. Riske, Catherine E. Cullicott, Amanda Mohammad Mirzaei, Amanda Jansen, and James Middleton

We introduce the Into Math Graph tool, which students use to graph how “into" mathematics they are over time. Using this tool can help teachers foster conversations with students and design experiences that focus on engagement from the student’s perspective.

### Kelly Curtis, Katrina Lindo, and Amanda Jansen

When a ninth-grade teacher used discourse moves aligned with responding to students’ thinking and explicitly promoting productive dispositions, her students reported having positive experiences.

### Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Heather Brletic-Shipley, Julia M. Matthews, and Nicole M. McNeil

Modify arithmetic problem formats to make the relational equation structure more transparent. We describe this practice and three additional evidence-based practices: (1) introducing the equal sign outside of arithmetic, (2) concreteness fading activities, and (3) comparing and explaining different problem formats and problem-solving strategies.

### Dane Camp, John Carter,, and David Masunaga

Song parodies are a fun way to engage others with mathematical topics. The challenge, of course, is finding a song and lyrics that fit just right. While teaching together in Honolulu, we stumbled across a popular song that turned out to be a math parody in disguise! You will notice that we have not changed the words, just how the words were displayed. You might want to try singing this yourself or sing along with the YouTube version: https://youtu.be/d1mqNdZ0obA. What do you notice? What do you wonder?

### Amber G. Candela, Melissa D. Boston, and Juli K. Dixon

We discuss how discourse actions can provide students greater access to high quality mathematics. We define discourse actions as what teachers or students say or do to elicit student contributions about a mathematical idea and generate ongoing discussion around student contributions. We provide rubrics and checklists for readers to use.

### Erell Germia and Nicole Panorkou

We present a Scratch task we designed and implemented for teaching and learning coordinates in a dynamic and engaging way. We use the 5Es framework to describe the students' interactions with the task and offer suggestions of how other teachers may adopt it to successfully implement Scratch tasks.

### John K. Lannin, Delinda van Garderen, and Jessica Kamuru

This manuscript discusses two important ideas for developing student foundational understanding of the number line: (a) student views of the number sequence, and (b) recognizing units on the number line. Various student strategies and activities are included.

### Debasmita Basu, Nicole Panorkou, Michelle Zhu, Pankaj Lal, and Bharath K. Samanthula

We provide an example from our integrated math and science curriculum where students explore the mathematical relationships underlying various science phenomena. We present the tasks we designed for exploring the covariation relationships that underlie the concept of gravity and discuss the generalizations students made as they interacted with those tasks.