Moving beyond memorization of probability rules, the area model can be useful in making some significant ideas in probability more apparent to students. In particular, area models can help students understand when and why they multiply probabilities and when and why they add probabilities.

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### George J. Roy, Jessica S. Allen, and Kelly Thacker

In this paper we illustrate how a task has the potential to provide students rich explorations in algebraic reasoning by thoughtfully connecting number concepts to corresponding conceptual underpinnings.

### Patrick Sullivan

Is the “Last Banana” game fair? Engaging in this exploration provides students with the mathematical power to answer the question and the mathematical opportunity to explore important statistical ideas. Students engage in simulations to calculate experimental probabilities and confirm those results by examining theoretical probabilities

### Jonathan N. Thomas and David M. Dueber

Through the use of rich examples, we examine the non-verbal ways in which teachers and students may communicate with one another. We will explore how gesture may be used to clarify and enrich interactions in the mathematics classroom.