Support your high school students in the challenging transition from memorization to understanding.

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### Ji-Yeong I and Jasmine Stanford

Using visuals is a well-known strategy to teach emergent bilinguals (EBs). This study examined how preservice teachers (PSTs) implemented visuals to help EBs understand mathematical problems and how an innovative intervention cultivated PSTs' capability of using visuals for EBs. Four middle school mathematics PSTs were engaged in a _ eld experience with EBs to work on mathematical problems; during the _ eld experience, the PSTs received interventions. In one intervention session, the PSTs were asked to make sense of a word problem written in an unknown language with different visuals. After this intervention, they changed their use of visuals when modifying tasks for EBs. The results suggest that immersive experiences where PSTs can experience learning from the perspective of EBs helps PSTs implement mathematically meaningful visuals in a way that makes mathematical problems accessible to EBs.

### Molly Fefolt and Terri L. Kurz

Math by the Month features collections of short activities focused on a monthly theme. These articles aim for an inquiry or problem-solving orientation that includes four activities each for grade bands K–2, 3–4, and 5–6. In this issue, students explore mathematical challenges within the context of the Greek gods. Activities are provided for elementary school children to support their exploration of mathematics in everyday situations.

### Edited by Anna F. DeJarnette and Stephen Phelps

A monthly set of problems is aimed at a variety of ability levels.

### Ron Lancaster

An activity involving ice cream is the focus of this month's Mathematical Lens.

### Benjamin Dickman

Explore three original problems, the thinking behind their formulation, how they can be solved, and related extensions.

### Anna F. DeJarnette

In support of efforts to foreground functions as central objects of study in algebra, this study provides evidence of how secondary students use trigonometric functions in contextual tasks. The author examined secondary students' work on a problem involving modeling the periodic motion of a Ferris wheel through the use of a visual programming environment. This study illustrates the range of prior knowledge and resources that students may draw on in their use of trigonometric functions as well as how the goals of students' work inform their reasoning about trigonometric functions.

### Raymond LaRochelle, Lauren Stewart, Kari Koch, and Sara Feiteira

This article describes a scientific investigation about pendulums that can be used to support students' understandings of variables, graphs, and relationships between quantities. Contributors to the iSTEM department share ideas and activities that stimulate student interest in the integrated fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in K–grade 6 classrooms.