A card-sorting task can help students extend their understanding of functions and functional relationships.

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### Marion D. Cohen

Studying mathematics-related fiction and poetry helps students develop an appreciation for both mathematics and literature and an understanding of the connection between the two.

### Sonali Raje, Gail Kaplan, and Michael Krach

The Chinese number pyramid puzzle serves as a means to develop students' critical thinking skills.

### Corey Webel

Do you use group work in your mathematics class? What does it look like? What do you expect your students to do when they work together? Have you ever wondered what your students think they are supposed to do?

## For Whom the Tolls Charge

### when will I ever use this

Calculating tolls based on miles traveled provides the real-life tie-in to this activity involving rates.

### Sherry L. Bair and Edward S. Mooney

Mathematical precision means more than accuracy in computation or procedures; it also means precision in language. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics states, “Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning” (CCSSI 2010, p. 7). In our recent experience in working with teachers and students, we have noticed a trend toward teachers using informal, and often creative, language and terminology in an effort to connect with students and make mathematical procedures easier to remember.

### Mark Pinkerton and Kathryn G. Shafer

An action research study focuses on the teaching strategies used to facilitate Problems of the Week.

### Erin Turner, Higinio Dominguez, Luz Maldonado, and Susan Empson

This study investigated discursive positioning moves that facilitated Latino/a English learners' (ELs) opportunities to take on agentive problem-solving roles in group mathematical discussion. A focus on mechanisms that support students' agentive participation is consistent with our view that recurrent experiences participating and being positioned in particular ways contribute to identity development. Findings suggest several ways that discursive positioning facilitated ELs' agentive participation, including via: (a) explicit statements that validated ELs' reasoning, (b) invitations to share, justify, or clarify thinking that positioned ELs as competent problem solvers, and (c) inviting peers to respond to an EL's idea in ways that positioned the idea as important and/or mathematically justified.

### Indigo Esmonde and Jennifer M. Langer-Osuna

In this article, mathematics classrooms are conceptualized as heterogeneous spaces in which multiple figured worlds come into contact. The study explores how a group of high school students drew upon several figured worlds as they navigated mathematical discussions. Results highlight 3 major points. First, the students drew on 2 primary figured worlds: a mathematics learning figured world and a figured world of friendship and romance. Both of these figured worlds were racialized and gendered, and were actively constructed and contested by the students. Second, these figured worlds offered resources for 1 African American student, Dawn, to position herself powerfully within classroom hierarchies. Third, these acts of positioning allowed Dawn to engage in mathematical practices such as conjecturing, clarifying ideas, and providing evidence.

### Timothy S. McKeny and Gregory D. Foley

Engage children in literature to pique their interest in quantity concepts, develop their fluency in measurement processes, and establish their quantitative literacy.