During World War II, the Allied Forces were concerned with the monthly production of tires, tanks, and other military equipment in Germany (Flaspohler and Dinkheller 1999; Ruggles and Brodie 1947). Knowing these production totals was important for international security. To determine military production, the Allied Forces in England recruited individuals from a wide range of educational and occupational backgrounds to help analyze serial numbers found on military equipment and to analyze secret codes (Pioneer Productions 2014). We used this historical context to challenge a class of twenty-six seventh-grade students to imagine themselves as one of these codebreaking analysts while studying random samples and learning to draw inferences about a population (CCSSI 2010).

Contributor Notes

George J. Roy, roygj@mailbox.sc.edu, is an associate professor at the University of South Carolina (USC) in Columbia. Prior to this, Roy taught middle school mathematics for eight years in the Orange County, Florida, Public Schools and achieved a NBPTS certification in Early Adolescence Mathematics. His current research efforts include examining uses of technology in middle school classrooms.

Jennifer A. Eli, jeli@math.arizona.edu, is an associate professor of mathematics education in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Arizona at Tucson. Her research areas include preservice teachers' mathematics knowledge for teaching and use of group work to promote equitable teaching practices.

Leslie Hendrix, leslie.hendrix@moore. sc.edu, is an assistant clinical professor of statistics at the University of South Carolina. She likes working on interesting interdisciplinary statistical problems with her colleagues.

LuAnn Graul, lgraul@lexrich5.org, is an assistant principal at Dutch Fork Middle School in Irmo, South Carolina. She spent twenty-five years in the middle school mathematics classroom helping students develop insights into various mathematical topics.

(Corresponding author is Roy roygj@mailbox.sc.edu)
(Corresponding author is Eli jeli@math.arizona.edu)
(Corresponding author is Hendrix leslie.hendrix@moore)
(Corresponding author is Graul lgraul@lexrich5.org)
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School
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