The two provided activities are geared for students in middle school to facilitate and deepen their understanding of the arithmetic mean. Through these activities, students analyze visual representations and use a special type of statistical thinking called transnumerative thinking.

Mathematics Teacher: Learning and Teaching PK-12
  • Chick, Helen. 2004. “Tools for Transnumeration: Early Stages in the Art of Data Representation." Paper presented at Mathematics Education for the Third Millennium: Towards 2010, Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Townsville, Australia, June 27–30, 2004, pp. 16774. https://www.merga.net.au/Public/Publications/Annual_Conference_Proceedings/2004_MERGA_CP.aspx.

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  • Groth, Randall , and Andrea Bargagliotti. 2012. “Gaiseing into the Common Core of Statistics." Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School 18, no. 1 (August): 3845.

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  • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). 2014. Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All. Reston, VA: NCTM.

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  • National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: NGA Center and CCSSO. http://www.corestandards.org.

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  • Wickstrom, Megan H. , and Tracy Aytes. 2018. “Elementary Modeling: Connecting Counting with Sharing." Teaching Children Mathematics 24, no. 5 (March): 300307.

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  • Wild, Chris J. , and Maxine Pfannkuch. 1999. “Statistical Thinking in Empirical Enquiry." International Statistical Review 67, no. 3 (December): 22348. https://iase-web.org/documents/intstatreview/99.Wild.Pfannkuch.pdf.

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