Research shows that students often struggle with understanding empirical sampling distributions. Using hands-on and technology models and simulations of problems generated by real data help students begin to make connections between repeated sampling, sample size, distribution, variation, and center. A task to assist teachers in implementing research-based strategies is included.

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Edited by Margaret Kinzel, Boise State University, Boise, ID

Laurie Cavey, Boise State University, Boise, ID

Contributor Notes

Hollylynne S. Lee,, and Tina T. Starling,, are colleagues in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Department at North Carolina State University in Raleigh.

Marggie D. Gonzalez,, is a doctoral candidate at North Carolina State University. All are interested in students' reasoning about statistical ideas when using technology tools and how secondary school mathematics teachers effectively use such tools with students during instruction and assessment.

(Corresponding author is Lee
(Corresponding author is Starling
(Corresponding author is Gonzalez
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