Revisit this collection of articles through the lens of Mathematics Teaching Practice 1: Establish mathematics goals to focus learning and Practice 2: Implement tasks that promote reasoning and problem solving, and 3 Use and connect mathematical representations.

Smith, Margaret Schwan, and MaryKay Stein.1998. “Selecting and Creating Mathematical Tasks: From Research to Practice.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School3, no. 5 (February): 344–49.

DanielBrahier, brahier@bgsu.edu, is a professor of mathematics at Bowling Green State University in Ohio and has served as a mathematics classroom teacher, school administrator, consultant, and teacher educator.

Baker, Scott, NonieLesaux, MadhaviJayanthi, JosephDimino, C. PatrickProctor, JoanMorris, RussellGersten, KellyHaymond, MichealJ. Kieffer, SylviaLinan-Thompson, and RebeccaNewman-Gonchar.2014. Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School(NCEE 2014-4012). Washington, DC: What Works Clearinghouse, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE), Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education. https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/PracticeGuide/19

Baker, Scott, NonieLesaux, MadhaviJayanthi, JosephDimino, C. PatrickProctor, JoanMorris, RussellGersten, KellyHaymond, MichealJ. Kieffer, SylviaLinan-Thompson, and RebeccaNewman-Gonchar.2014. )| false

Randolph, Winifred, and VerneG. Jeffers.1974. “A New Look for the Hundred Chart.” Arithmetic Teacher21, no. 3 (March): 203–8. doi:http://www.jstor.org/stable/41188490

Van de Walle, John A., KarenS. Karp, and JenniferM. Bay-Williams.2016. Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally.9th ed.New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Van de Walle, John A., KarenS. Karp, and JenniferM. Bay-Williams.2016. )| false

Ball, Deborah Loewenberg, and HymanBass. “With an Eye on the Mathematical Horizon: Knowing Mathematics for Teaching to Learners’ Mathematical Futures.” Paper prepared based on keynote address at the 43rd Jahrestagung für Didaktik der Mathematik held in Oldenburg, Germany, March1–4, 2009.

Ball, Deborah Loewenberg, and HymanBass. “With an Eye on the Mathematical Horizon: Knowing Mathematics for Teaching to Learners’ Mathematical Futures.” )| false

Ball, Deborah Loewenberg, and HeatherHill. “Measuring Teacher Quality in Practice.” In Measurement Issues and Assessment for Teaching Quality, edited by DrewH. Gitomer, (pp. 80–98). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2008.

Ball, Deborah Loewenberg, and HeatherHill. “Measuring Teacher Quality in Practice.” In )| false

Ball, Deborah Loewenberg, MarkHoover Thames, and GeoffreyPhelps. “Content Knowledge for Teaching: What Makes It Special?” Journal of Teacher Education59, no. 5 (2008): 389–407.

Hill, Heather C., and DeborahLoewenberg Ball. “Learning Mathematics for Teaching: Results from California's Mathematics Professional Development Institutes.” Journal for Research in Mathematics Education35, no. 5 (November2004): 330–51.

Hill, Heather C., and DeborahLoewenberg Ball. “Learning Mathematics for Teaching: Results from California's Mathematics Professional Development Institutes.” )| false

NationalMathematics Advisory Panel.Foundations for Success: The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 2008.

Rowland, Tim, FayTurner, PeterHuckstep, and AnneThwaites.Developing Primary Mathematics Teaching: Reflecting on Practice with the Knowledge Quartet.London: Sage Publications, 2009.

Wilson, Suzanne M., LeeS. Shulman, and AnnaE. Richert. “150 Different Ways of Knowing: Representations of Knowledge in Teaching.” In Exploring Teachers’ Thinking, edited by J.Calderhead, pp. 104–23. Eastbourne, UK: Cassell, 1987.

Wilson, Suzanne M., LeeS. Shulman, and AnnaE. Richert. “150 Different Ways of Knowing: Representations of Knowledge in Teaching.” In Exploring Teachers’ Thinking, edited by J.Calderhead, pp. 104–23. Eastbourne, UK: Cassell, 1987.)| false

Anenz-Ludlow, Adalira, and CatherineWalgamuth. “Third Graders’ Interpretations of Equality and the Equal Symbol.” Educational Studies in Mathematics35 (1998); 153–87.

Anenz-Ludlow, Adalira, and CatherineWalgamuth. “Third Graders’ Interpretations of Equality and the Equal Symbol.” Educational Studies in Mathematics35 (1998); 153–87.10.1023/A:1003086304201)| false

Behr, Merlyn, StanleyErlwanger, and EugeneNichols.How Children View Equality Sentences. PMDC Technical Report, no. 3. Tallahassee, Fla.: Florida State University, 1975. ERIC No. ED 144 802.

Behr, Merlyn, StanleyErlwanger, and EugeneNichols.How Children View Equality Sentences. PMDC Technical Report, no. 3. Tallahassee, Fla.: Florida State University, 1975. ERIC No. ED 144 802.)| false

Erlwanger, Stanley, and MauriceBerlanger. “Interpretations of the Equal Sign among Elementary School Children.” In Proceedings of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Montreal: 1983.

Erlwanger, Stanley, and MauriceBerlanger. “Interpretations of the Equal Sign among Elementary School Children.” In Proceedings of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Montreal: 1983.)| false

Matz, Marilyn. “Towards a Process Model for School Algebra Errors.” In Intelligent Tutoring Systems, edited by DerickSleeman and JohnSeeley Brown, 25–50. New York: Academic Press, 1982.

Matz, Marilyn. “Towards a Process Model for School Algebra Errors.” In Intelligent Tutoring Systems, edited by DerickSleeman and JohnSeeley Brown, 25–50. New York: Academic Press, 1982.)| false

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/wp-content/uploads/Math_Standards.pdf

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/wp-content/uploads/Math_Standards.pdf)| false

Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). 2008. “Attributes of Effective Formative Assessment.” Paper prepared for the Formative Assessment for Teachers and Students (FAST) State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards (SCASS) of the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.ccsso.org/Resources/Publications/Attributes_of_Effective_Formative_Assessment.html

Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). 2008. “Attributes of Effective Formative Assessment.” Paper prepared for the Formative Assessment for Teachers and Students (FAST) State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards (SCASS) of the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.ccsso.org/Resources/Publications/Attributes_of_Effective_Formative_Assessment.html)| false

Gopnik, Alison, AndrewN. Meltzoff, and PatricianK. Kuhl.1999. The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us about the Mind.1st ed.New York: William Morrow.

Gopnik, Alison, AndrewN. Meltzoff, and PatricianK. Kuhl.1999. The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us about the Mind.1st ed.New York: William Morrow.)| false

Heritage, Margaret.2010. Formative Assessment and Next-Generation Assessment Systems: Are We Losing an Opportunity? Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.

Heritage, Margaret.2010. Formative Assessment and Next-Generation Assessment Systems: Are We Losing an Opportunity? Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.)| false

Moschkovich, Judit.2012. “Mathematics, the Common Core, and Language: Recommendations for Mathematics Instruction for ELs Aligned with the Common Core.” Understanding Language Conference, Stanford University, January 13–14. http://ell.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/pdf/academic-papers/02-Jmoschkovich%20Math%20FINAL_bound%20with%20appendix.pdf)| false

Clarke, Doug, BarbaraClarke, and AnneRoche.2011. “Building Teachers’ Expertise in Understanding, Assessing and Developing Children's Mathematical Thinking: The Power of Task-Based, One-to-One Interviews.” ZDM Mathematics Education43 (6): 901–13. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11858-011-0345-2

Clarke, Doug, BarbaraClarke, and AnneRoche.2011. “Building Teachers’ Expertise in Understanding, Assessing and Developing Children's Mathematical Thinking: The Power of Task-Based, One-to-One Interviews.” ZDM Mathematics Education43 (6): 901–13. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11858-011-0345-210.1007/s11858-011-0345-2)| false

Clarke, Doug, AnneRoche, and AnnieMitchell.2007. “Year Six Fraction Understanding: A Part of the Whole Story.” In Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, edited by JaneWatson and KimBeswick, pp. 207–16, vol. 2, Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice. Hobart: MERGA.

Clarke, Doug, AnneRoche, and AnnieMitchell.2007. “Year Six Fraction Understanding: A Part of the Whole Story.” In Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, edited by JaneWatson and KimBeswick, pp. 207–16, vol. 2, Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice. Hobart: MERGA.)| false

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_Math%20Standards.pdf

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_Math%20Standards.pdf)| false

Hiebert, James, and DianaWearne, 1997. “Instructional Tasks, Classroom Discourse and Student Learning in Second Grade Arithmetic.” American Educational Research Journal30 (2): 393–425. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312030002393

Hiebert, James, and DianaWearne, 1997. “Instructional Tasks, Classroom Discourse and Student Learning in Second Grade Arithmetic.” American Educational Research Journal30 (2): 393–425. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831203000239310.3102/00028312030002393)| false

Lamon, Susan J.2006. Teaching Fractions and Ratios for Understanding: Essential Content Knowledge and Instructional Strategies for Teachers.2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lamon, Susan J.2006. Teaching Fractions and Ratios for Understanding: Essential Content Knowledge and Instructional Strategies for Teachers.2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.10.4324/9781410617132)| false

Lamon, Susan J.2007. “Rational Numbers and Proportional Reasoning: Towards a Theoretical Framework for Research.” In Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, edited by FrankK. Lester, Jr., pp. 629–67, vol. 1. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Lamon, Susan J.2007. “Rational Numbers and Proportional Reasoning: Towards a Theoretical Framework for Research.” In Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, edited by FrankK. Lester, Jr., pp. 629–67, vol. 1. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.)| false

Lesh, Richard, ThomasPost, and MerlynBehr.1988. “Proportional Reasoning.” In Number Concepts and Operations in the Middle Grades, edited by JamesHiebert and MerlynBehr, pp. 93–118, vol. 2, Research Agenda for Mathematics Education. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lesh, Richard, ThomasPost, and MerlynBehr.1988. “Proportional Reasoning.” In Number Concepts and Operations in the Middle Grades, edited by JamesHiebert and MerlynBehr, pp. 93–118, vol. 2, Research Agenda for Mathematics Education. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.)| false

Stein, Mary Kay, and SuzanneLane.1996. “Instructional Tasks and the Development of Student Capacity to Think and Reason: An Analysis of the Relationship between Teaching and Learning in a Reform Mathematics Project.” Educational Research and Evaluation2 (1): 50–80. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1380361960020103

Stein, Mary Kay, and SuzanneLane.1996. “Instructional Tasks and the Development of Student Capacity to Think and Reason: An Analysis of the Relationship between Teaching and Learning in a Reform Mathematics Project.” Educational Research and Evaluation2 (1): 50–80. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/138036196002010310.1080/1380361960020103)| false

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/wp-content/uploads/Math_Standards.pdf

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/wp-content/uploads/Math_Standards.pdf)| false

Heinze, Aiso, JonStar, and LievenVerschaffel.2009. “Flexible and Adaptive Use of Strategies and Representations in Mathematics Education.” ZDM41 (September): 535–40.

Heinze, Aiso, JonStar, and LievenVerschaffel.2009. “Flexible and Adaptive Use of Strategies and Representations in Mathematics Education.” ZDM41 (September): 535–40.10.1007/s11858-009-0214-4)| false

Kuper, Emily G., and PatrickKimani.2013. “Responding to Students’ Work on a Rich Task.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School18 (March): 431–38.

Kuper, Emily G., and PatrickKimani.2013. “Responding to Students’ Work on a Rich Task.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School18 (March): 431–38.)| false

Lappan, Glenda, and DianeJ. Briars.1995. “How Should Mathematics Be Taught?” In 75 Years of Progress: Prospects for School Mathematics, edited by IrisCarl, pp. 131–56. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Lappan, Glenda, and DianeJ. Briars.1995. “How Should Mathematics Be Taught?” In 75 Years of Progress: Prospects for School Mathematics, edited by IrisCarl, pp. 131–56. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.)| false

Schroeder, Thomas L., and FrankK. Lester.1989. “Developing Understanding in Mathematics via Problem Solving.” In New Directions for Elementary School Mathematics, edited by PaulR. Trafton and AlbertP. Shulte, pp. 31–42. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Schroeder, Thomas L., and FrankK. Lester.1989. “Developing Understanding in Mathematics via Problem Solving.” In New Directions for Elementary School Mathematics, edited by PaulR. Trafton and AlbertP. Shulte, pp. 31–42. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.)| false

Smith, Margaret S., ElizabethK. Hughes, RandiA. Engle, and MaryKay Stein.2009. “Orchestrating Discussions.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School14 (May): 548–56.

Stein, Mary Kay, and MargaretS. Smith.1998. “Mathematical Tasks as a Framework for Reflection: From Research to Practice.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School3 (December): 268–75.

Stein, Mary Kay, and MargaretS. Smith.1998. “Mathematical Tasks as a Framework for Reflection: From Research to Practice.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School3 (December): 268–75.10.5951/MTMS.3.4.0268)| false

Boaler, Jo.2013. “The Stereotypes That Distort How Americans Teach and Learn Math.” The Atlantic.http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2013/11/the-stereotypes-about-math-that-hold-americans-back/281303/)| false

Buxton, Cory A.2006. “Creating Contextually Authentic Science in a ‘Low-Performing’ Urban Elementary School.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching43 (7): 695–721. doi:ttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tea.20105

Buxton, Cory A.2006. “Creating Contextually Authentic Science in a ‘Low-Performing’ Urban Elementary School.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching43 (7): 695–721. doi:ttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tea.2010510.1002/tea.20105)| false

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/wp-content/uploads/Math_Standards.pdf

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/wp-content/uploads/Math_Standards.pdf)| false

Steen, Lynn Arthur.2001. Mathematics and Democracy: The Case for Quantitative Literacy.Washington, DC: National Council on Education and the Disciplines and the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.

Steen, Lynn Arthur.2001. Mathematics and Democracy: The Case for Quantitative Literacy.Washington, DC: National Council on Education and the Disciplines and the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.)| false

Friel, Susan N., and KimberlyA. Markworth. “A Framework for Analyzing Geometric Pattern Tasks.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School15 (August2009): 24–33.

Friel, Susan N., and KimberlyA. Markworth. “A Framework for Analyzing Geometric Pattern Tasks.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School15 (August2009): 24–33.10.5951/MTMS.15.1.0024)| false

Lee, Lesley, and ViktorFreiman. “Developing Algebraic Thinking through Pattern Exploration.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School11 (May2006): 428–33.

Lee, Lesley, and ViktorFreiman. “Developing Algebraic Thinking through Pattern Exploration.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School11 (May2006): 428–33.10.5951/MTMS.11.9.0428)| false

Peitgen, Heinz-Otto, HartmutJürgens, DietmarSaupe, EvanMaletsky, TerryPerciante, and LeeYunker.Fractals for the Classroom: Strategic Activities Volume One.New York: NCTM and Springer-Verlag, 1991.

Phillips, Elizabeth.Patterns and Functions. Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics Addenda Series, Grades 5–8. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991.

Phillips, Elizabeth.Patterns and Functions. Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics Addenda Series, Grades 5–8. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991.)| false

Rivera, Ferdinand. “Visualizing as a Mathematical Way of Knowing: Understanding Figural Generalization.” Mathematics Teacher101 (August2007): 69–75.10.5951/MT.101.1.0069)| false

Rivera, Ferdinand D., and JoanneRossi Becker. “Figural and Numerical Modes of Generalizing in Algebra.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School11 (November2005): 198–203.

Rivera, Ferdinand D., and JoanneRossi Becker. “Figural and Numerical Modes of Generalizing in Algebra.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School11 (November2005): 198–203.10.5951/MTMS.11.4.0198)| false

Smith, Margaret S., AmyF. Hillen, and ChristyL. Catania. “Using Pattern Tasks to Develop Mathematical Understandings and Set Classroom Norms.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School13 (August2007): 38–44.

Smith, Margaret S., AmyF. Hillen, and ChristyL. Catania. “Using Pattern Tasks to Develop Mathematical Understandings and Set Classroom Norms.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School13 (August2007): 38–44.10.5951/MTMS.13.1.0038)| false

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/wp-content/uploads/Math_Standards.pdf

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/wp-content/uploads/Math_Standards.pdf)| false

JonesSteven R. 2013. “Adding It All Up: Reconceiving the Introduction of the Integral.” Mathematics Teacher 107 (5): 372–77.10.5951/mathteacher.107.5.0372)| false

LeshRichard, and JudithZawojewski. 2007. “Problem Solving and Modeling.” In Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, edited by Frank K.Lester, vol. 2, pp. 763–804. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

LeshRichard, and JudithZawojewski. 2007. “Problem Solving and Modeling.” In Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, edited by Frank K.Lester, vol. 2, pp. 763–804. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.)| false

TallDavid O. “Constructing the Concept Image of a Tangent.” 1987. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference of PME III, pp. 69–75. Montreal: PME.

TallDavid O. “Constructing the Concept Image of a Tangent.” 1987. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference of PME III, pp. 69–75. Montreal: PME.)| false

TreffersAdrian. 1987. Three Dimensions. A Model of Goal and Theory Description in Mathematics Education: The Wiskobas Project. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

TreffersAdrian. 1987. Three Dimensions. A Model of Goal and Theory Description in Mathematics Education: The Wiskobas Project. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.)| false

UsiskinZalman. 2001. “Quantitative Literacy for the Next Generation.” In Mathematics and Democracy: The Case for Quantitative Literacy, edited by Lynn ArthurSteen, pp. 79–86. Princeton, NJ: Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.

UsiskinZalman. 2001. “Quantitative Literacy for the Next Generation.” In Mathematics and Democracy: The Case for Quantitative Literacy, edited by Lynn ArthurSteen, pp. 79–86. Princeton, NJ: Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.)| false

Hatton, Neville, and DavidSmith. “Reflection in Teacher Education: Towards Definition and Implementation.” Teaching and Teacher Education11, no. 1 (1995): 33–49.

Hatton, Neville, and DavidSmith. “Reflection in Teacher Education: Towards Definition and Implementation.” Teaching and Teacher Education11, no. 1 (1995): 33–49.10.1016/0742-051X(94)00012-U)| false

Leitze, Annette Ricks, and NancyA. Kitt. “Algebra for All: Using Homemade Algebra Tiles to Develop Algebra and Prealgebra Concepts.” Mathematics Teacher93 (2000): 462–66, 520.

Leitze, Annette Ricks, and NancyA. Kitt. “Algebra for All: Using Homemade Algebra Tiles to Develop Algebra and Prealgebra Concepts.” Mathematics Teacher93 (2000): 462–66, 520.10.5951/MT.93.6.0462)| false

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_Math%20Standards.pdf

Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_Math%20Standards.pdf)| false

Trappe, Wade, and LawrenceC. Washington.2006. Introduction to Cryptography with Coding Theory.2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Trappe, Wade, and LawrenceC. Washington.2006. Introduction to Cryptography with Coding Theory.2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.)| false

Allaire, Patricia R., and RobertE. Bradley.2001. “Geometric Approaches to Quadratic Equations from Other Times and Places.” Mathematics Teacher94 (April): 308–13, 319.

Allaire, Patricia R., and RobertE. Bradley.2001. “Geometric Approaches to Quadratic Equations from Other Times and Places.” Mathematics Teacher94 (April): 308–13, 319.10.5951/MT.94.4.0308)| false

Babb, Maurice J.1914. “Are Particular Abilities Necessary for the Pupil to Gain an Understanding of the Elementary and Secondary Mathematics as Usually Given at the Present Time?” Mathematics Teacher6 (June): 209–16.

Babb, Maurice J.1914. “Are Particular Abilities Necessary for the Pupil to Gain an Understanding of the Elementary and Secondary Mathematics as Usually Given at the Present Time?” Mathematics Teacher6 (June): 209–16.10.5951/MT.6.4.0209)| false

Bachman, Rachel.2013. “Building Conceptual Understanding in a Remedial College Mathematics Classroom: A Study of Effectiveness.” EdD diss., SUNY Binghamton.

Bachman, Rachel.2013. “Building Conceptual Understanding in a Remedial College Mathematics Classroom: A Study of Effectiveness.” EdD diss., SUNY Binghamton.)| false

Chazan, Daniel.2000. Beyond Formulas in Mathematics and Teaching: Dynamics of the High School Algebra Classroom.Series on School Reform. New York: Teachers College Press.

Chazan, Daniel.2000. Beyond Formulas in Mathematics and Teaching: Dynamics of the High School Algebra Classroom.Series on School Reform. New York: Teachers College Press.)| false

Ikonne, Sara O.2011. “The Development of Curricular Modules Using Learning Theories and Research Results to Enhance Student Learning of Completing the Square.” MS thesis, The University of Texas at San Antonio.

Ikonne, Sara O.2011. “The Development of Curricular Modules Using Learning Theories and Research Results to Enhance Student Learning of Completing the Square.” MS thesis, The University of Texas at San Antonio.)| false

Karpinski, Louis Charles.1915. Robert of Chester's Latin Translation of the Algebra of Al-Khowarizmi: With an Introduction, Critical Notes, and an English Version.New York: Macmillan.

Karpinski, Louis Charles.1915. Robert of Chester's Latin Translation of the Algebra of Al-Khowarizmi: With an Introduction, Critical Notes, and an English Version.New York: Macmillan.10.3998/mpub.9690739)| false

Phelps, Steve, and MichaelTodd Edwards.2010. “Delving Deeper: New Life for an Old Topic: Completing the Square Using Technology.” Mathematics Teacher104 (October): 230–36.

Phelps, Steve, and MichaelTodd Edwards.2010. “Delving Deeper: New Life for an Old Topic: Completing the Square Using Technology.” Mathematics Teacher104 (October): 230–36.10.5951/MT.104.3.0230)| false